The Siege of Sevastopol
War: Crimean War
Date : September 1854 to September 1855
The central theme running through the Crimean War was the appalling
siege of Sevastopol, a foretaste of the trench fighting of the
American Civil War, ten years later, and finally the First World
War. Daily, hundreds of cannon battered down fortifications that had
to be redug before the next day’s bombardment. Soldiers manned the
trenches night after night through two harsh winters, in the first
with almost no winter equipment. Sorties led to hand to hand
fighting along the entrenchments. The Russians developed the art of
sniping from the “rifle pits" dug in no man’s land. The predominant
experts were the engineers and the artillerymen; the flamboyant
actions of the cavalry a world away.
Colour Sergeant "Willie" McGregor of the Scots Fusilier Guards,
photographed in 1856 after the Crimean War, wearing the post-war
tunic but with his Crimean beard.
Piper David Beard of the 42nd Highlanders, The Black Watch
The Siege of Sevastopol
Following the battle of the
Alma on 20th September 1854, the British and French allies resolved
not to make a direct attack on the Russian Naval Base and City of
Sevastopol from the North but to march around the city and besiege
it from the South and East.
The Panoramic view of the Siege of Sevastopol
On the 25th and 26th September 1854 the two armies, with a
Turkish contingent, completed the march, by the Traktir Bridge over
the Tchernaya River and onto the Fedioukine Hills.
French sapper, dressed for work in the
trenches in the Siege of Sevastopol
While the French and British marched round the city the Russian
commander, Prince Menshikoff, took the preponderance of his army out
of Sevastopol, across the Tchernaya and off to the North East.
Menshikoff’s aim was to prevent his army being bottled up in the
city and to enable him to receive the reinforcements that were on
their way from the North of the Crimea and other parts of Russia.
The British and French prepared for the formal siege of Sevastopol.
Each army needed a secure base on the Black Sea through which to
bring their heavy siege guns, ammunition and supplies and equipment
needed to maintain the siege lines.
The British selected the small fishing harbour of Balaclava, leaving
the French to move to the left of the siege lines and establish
their base in the small harbour of Kamiesh on the south western tip
of the Crimea.
The French and British engineers and troops began to build the
siege lines along the Chersonese Uplands to the South of the City,
digging redoubts, batteries for the guns and lengths of trench.
Sevastopol harbour is joined to the Black Sea by a four mile creek,
its mouth guarded by two forts, Constantine on the north side and
Alexander on the south. Other forts lay along the creek and further
out to sea. The city of Sevastopol lay on the south bank of the
creek. To the East and some miles away the River Tchernaya flowed in
a curve around the city. The Chersonese plateau overlooked the city
borders and to the East the plateau was cut by a number of deep
ravines (the site of the Battle of Inkerman).
Around the edge of
the city along its fortifications stood a number of redoubts that
were to be fought over during the siege: the Malakoff, the Redan,
Flagstaff Bastion, the Little Redan and others.
Soldiers of the 68th Regiment
A great ravine ran
north to south across the Chersonese marking the divide between the
French lines on the left and the British on the right.
Immediately following the defeat on the Alma the Russians sank a
line of warships across the entrance to the harbour to prevent the
Allied fleets from entering.
From the beginning of the siege and particularly after Prince
Menshikoff had left the city with his field army, the defence of
Sevastopol was led and inspired by Admiral Kornilov, until his
death, and Lieutenant Colonel Todleben, Menshikoff’s chief engineer.
British and French troops in camp.
Menshikoff left in the city: 4,500 militia, 2,700 gunners, 4,400
marines,18,500 naval seamen and 5,000 workmen: 35,100 men.
the Battle of the Alma the Allies were seen to march around the city
and appear on the Chersonese Uplands demonstrating to the Russians
that the siege would be fought out on the south side of the city.
The French and British staffs on the heights above Sevastopol.
Earth batteries and stone walls ran from the great ravine to the
sea. Elsewhere the proposed defences along the south side of the
city were marked out, but little of the work had been completed.
Todleben set his men to build further defences and armed them with
heavy guns many from the ships that had been sunk across the harbour
entrance. Other ships were used to cover points accessible to naval
gunfire from the harbour and the creek.
The interior of Redan after it had been abandoned by the Russians
On 2nd October 1854 the
Russians sent all non-combatants out of the city to the North.
On 9th October 1854 the French “broke ground" (began to dig their
trench system) and the British followed suit on the next night. By
16th October 1854 the Allied positions were ready and equipped with
126 guns in battery. The Russians mounted 118 guns in battery. A
further 200 Russian guns were in place to fire on attacking
French dragoon and hussar
It was intended that the Allied bombardment of the
defences begin on 17th October 1854. The generals wished the French
and British fleets simultaneously to attack the forts at the
entrance to the harbour, an operation the admirals were reluctant to
undertake, the advantage lying very much with the defence in such an
At 6.30am on 17th October 1854 the Allies began the bombardment
of Sevastopol. At 10.30am a Russian shell exploded in the magazine
of the French battery on Mount Rudolph, blowing it up and destroying
the battery. The remaining French guns were soon silenced. The
general infantry assault that was to follow the bombardment was
The British fire on the Malakoff Redoubt was equally
effective. The magazine was blown up and many of the guns in the
redoubt silenced. Admiral Korniloff, who was directing the defence
of the Malakoff, was killed. The Russians were thrown into
considerable disarray. If the British had continued with the
intended assault it is thought that the Malakoff would have fallen
and probably with it the city. But no assault was launched in view
of the condition of the French army after the explosion in the Mount
Out at sea the British and French Fleets bombarded the Russian forts
for some hours, suffering considerable damage and inflicting little
in return, before retiring out to sea.
Colour Sergeant Gardiner of the 42nd
Highlanders, the Black Watch
On the 18th October 1854
the British guns resumed the attack without the assistance of the
French. But dawn revealed that the Russians had almost entirely
rebuilt the great sections of parapet that had been thrown down in
the previous day’s bombardment. The Allies experienced for the first
time the phenomenon that however much was destroyed in a day’s
bombardment the Russians would usually repair the damage overnight.
During the rest of October and November 1854 the siege continued
while the battles of Balaclava and Inkerman took place beyond the
In November 1854 the weather turned from mild autumn to winter.
On 14th November 1854 the Great Hurricane struck, destroying much
shipping in the two bases and tearing away the tents in which the
troops had been living. 21 ships were wrecked in Balaclava,
containing the stores needed for survival through the winter and to
conduct the siege. The evening of the storm it began to snow.
siege for the Allies became a nightmare with the trenches flooded
and no proper shelter for the troops when off-duty.
winter, lack of proper supply systems brought the British Army in
the Crimea to the brink of starvation. Huge numbers fell sick and
the horses and mules died in droves.
During the winter of
1854/1855 Todleben laboured to extend the fortifications around the
Redan, the Flagstaff Bastion and the Malakoff. Sir John Burgoyne,
the British chief engineer (and son of Major General John Burgoyne
of Saratoga) was of the view that the capture of the Malakoff was
the key to taking Sevastopol. Siege works were opened to bring the
Allied troops near enough to assault the Malakoff.
The British attack on the Redan
the Russians gave up the idea that the Allies could be defeated in
the field and infiltrated men from the field army back into
Sevastopol to reinforce the garrison.
Todleben evolved the idea of
digging rifle pits overnight from which to snipe at the besiegers.
The idea was successful and the Russians extended the system all
along the line. On 20th November 1854 a party of the Rifles attacked
a line of pits and overcame them.
A French Battery Bombards the enemy lines
In the same month the French began a mine under the Flagstaff
Bastion. The Russians dug countermines and a system of warfare to be
seen 60 years later on the Western Front in France established
itself with attacks to capture the lips of blown mines.
November 1854 the activities of the combatants focused on a small
hill in front of the Malakoff called the Mamelon. The fighting to
capture this feature raged through the winter of 1854 to March 1855
when the Russians finally took the Mamelon.
On the night of 22nd
March 1855 the Russians launched a sortie of some 5,500 men against
the French positions covering the Mamelon. The French troops
resisted stoutly and finally the Russians were driven back into
Sevastopol. Simultaneous with the assault on the French the Russians
attacked the siege works at several points but were driven out in
The British batteries firing in to Sevastopol
In February 1855 the Russians attempted to capture
Eupatoria, the town some 30 miles to the North of Sevastopol, held
by Turkish troops. The attack was repelled, substantially due to
Also in February 1855 the Russians sank a second line of ships
across the entrance to Sevastopol harbour.
With the arrival of
spring the circumstances of the Allied armies improved out of
recognition. A city of huts sprung up along the Uplands. The troops
were properly clothed and fed. The horses were restored to health. A
railway had been built from Balaclava to the siege lines to bring up
supplies. A vast concentration of guns was established along the
Allied lines with an abundance of ammunition: 378 French guns and
123 British guns.
On Easter Sunday, 8th April 1855, the Allied
began a heavy bombardment of the city’s defences. A weapon that made
its first appearance was the mortar, firing an exploding projectile
in a high arc from a position out of sight of the enemy.
The British Base at Balaclava
next 10 days the Allies silenced the fire of the Russian guns along
the defence lines. However there was no Allied infantry assault.
During this period the Russians lost 6,000 killed and wounded from
their gunners and infantry. The Allies lost 1,600.
February 1855 The Tsar Nicholas II died and his son Alexander II
took the Russian throne.
On 19th April 1855 Lieutenant Colonel Egerton attacked the rifle
pits before the Redan with his 77th Regiment. The 77th drove out the
Russians at the point of the bayonet, not firing a shot. The 77th
suffered many casualties and later that night Colonel Egerton was
himself killed. His men carried him back to camp, meeting his wife
on the track.
Lieutenant Colonel Egerton of the 77th Regiment with Private
Alexander WRight of the Grenadier Company of the 77th who won the
Victoria Cross during the Siege of Sevastopol. Colonel Egerton
was killed during the siege.
On 16th May 1855 General Canrobert resigned the
command of the French Army and was replaced by General Pélissier.
On 22nd May 1855 the Allies sent an expedition to capture and sack
the Eastern Crimean port of Kertch.
On the night of 21st May 1855 a savage battle took place between the
French and the Russians over a length of trench the Russians had
built at the western end of the siege works. The next night the
French renewed the attack and captured the trench. Casualties for
each side during the two nights of trench fighting were around 600.
On 25th May 1855 General Canrobert, now a divisional commander,
crossed the Traktir Bridge and drove the Russians back, before
returning to the southern side of the Tchernaya River.
It was at
this time that a contingent of troops, some 15,000, arrived from the
Kingdom of Sardinia, commanded by General La Marmora, taking up
position on the French right.
At 3pm on 6th June 1855 a heavy
bombardment opened. The French batteries on Mount Inkerman fired on
the Malakoff. The British fired on the Malakoff and the Redan. 540
guns fired from each side.
Overnight the Russians wrought their usual near miraculous
restoration of the works. The bombardment resumed on 7th June 1855
and threw down the defensive works again.
At 6.30pm the French
launched their attack. At 5.30 am the next morning the attack was
renewed and the Mamelon captured by three columns of French Zouaves,
Turcos and Chasseurs commanded by General Bosquet.
The French in
their enthusiasm continued the attack up to the Malakoff but were
driven back to the Mamelon. Further French attacks took place along
the line and by dawn it could be seen that the Russians had been
driven from all their outworks which the French had converted into
their front line. French casualties were 5,440, British 693 and the
Officers of the Coldstream Guards open a hamper from the Army and
in their hut. A Russian helmet hangs in the corner and a
cat sits by the stove.
This very successful form of operation: a full day’s
bombardment with an hour’s bombardment the next morning followed by
the infantry assault: was to be repeated by the French and the
British on 17th/18th June 1855. General Pélissier, the French
Commander-in-Chief then committed two blunders: in a fit of pique he
replaced the experienced and popular General Bosquet as the
commander of the French assault with a general who had arrived in
the Crimea only two days before and knew little of the area. The
second blunder was at the last moment to dispense with the short
morning bombardment that had been instrumental in the first attack
in throwing down the Russian defences rebuilt overnight.
Russians, alert to the attack, equipped the forward positions with
field guns which mowed down the attacking parties: the morning
bombardment would have destroyed these guns.
British soldiers, wounded in the Crimea, arrive at
Florence Nightingale's hospital in Scutari
Only in one section of the line was the attack successful.
General Eyre with a brigade of 2,000 British troops captured
buildings and a cemetery at the bottom of Picket House Ravine. The
troops held this position all day under heavy artillery fire. The
cemetery was fortified overnight by the Royal Engineers and became
part of the allied line. Eyre was wounded in the fighting and 600 of
his men became casualties.
Losses in the bombardment and assault
were: French 3,500, English 1,500 and Russian 5,400. Of the six
Allied commanders in the attack four were killed and one severely
French Zouaves in camp
The failure of the 18th June 1855 attack and the heavy
casualties are said to have weighed heavily on Lord Raglan, the
British Commander-in-Chief and on 28th June 1855, after a bout of
relatively minor cholera, he died. It is said that the French
Commander-in-Chief General Pélissier stood by his deathbed and wept
for an hour.
The French repelling the Russian attack in August 1855
During the bombardment in early June 1855 the Russian
garrison in Sevastopol lost 1,000 to 1,500 men a day. The allied
works everywhere encroached upon the defences. On 9th August 1855
Prince Gorschakoff convened a council of war of the senior Russian
officers. It was resolved that the Russian field army attack the
French and Sardinian troops on the Fedioukine Hills.
was made by General Liprandi on 15th August 1855. His troops crossed
the Tchernaya River and made several assaults upon the French
positions, but each time were driven off with heavy loss. Liprandi
finally withdrew away to the North East. The effort to relieve
Sevastopol had failed.
The final assaults on Sevastopol took place on 8th September 1855.
The French discovered that the Russians relieved the garrisons in
the major works daily at midday. In order to avoid the overcrowding
and consequent loss from having the old and the new garrisons in the
works at the same time the Russian practice was to march out the old
before bringing in the new. Consequently for a time around midday
the defensive works were denuded of men. The assault was to take
place at that time.
French troops in Sevastopol trenches during the winter of 1854 /
Roadways were prepared through the siege works
to enable the attacking troops to mass in the front line. The areas
of the defences to be attacked were the Malakoff, the Curtain, the
Little Redan and the Flagstaff Bastion. The Redan was to be
assaulted by General Codrington and the British Light Division with
General Markham’s Second Division.
The bombardment began on 5th
September 1855 and continued on 6th and 7th. Two Russian naval ships
in Sevastopol harbour were set alight by the cannonade.
The British base at Balaclava
the Russians rebuilt the damaged works each night. On the morning of
8th September 1855 the Russians manned the defences with infantry
and field guns expecting the assault to take place as before in the
early morning after a hurricane bombardment.
But it was not until
midday that the assault began and the surprise of the Russians
worked out as the French Commander-in-Chief had calculated. There
was little fire on the attacking columns of General Bosquet as they
rushed the Russian positions.
Officer of the 10th Hussars
The French poured into the Malakoff
and took the advanced works. The Russians emerged from the interior
of the bastion and counter attacked. The fighting in the Malakoff
raged until 4pm when finally the French took the bastion. Equally
savage fighting raged over the Little Redan and the Curtain, before
they were taken.
The British had less success against the Redan. The rocky nature
of the ground prevented the digging of works to protect the
attacking columns and the assault failed.
Corporal Philip Smith of the 17th Regiment winning
the Victoria Cross for
rescuing an officer during
the attack on the Redan in the Siege of Sevastopol
The loss of the Malakoff
with its dominant position overlooking Sevastopol and its defences
caused the Russians finally to give up the struggle. The French in
the bastion were treated to the view of the Russian garrison
crossing the bridges to the north side of the harbour leaving the
city in ruins to the Allies.
In the final attack the French lost 5 generals killed and 4 wounded.
French casualties were 7,567 officers and men. The British lost
2,271 officers and men. 3 British generals were wounded. Russian
casualties on the last day of fighting were 12,913. 2 Russian
generals were killed and 5 wounded.
On 11th September 1855 the
Russians burnt the remaining ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The siege
was effectively over. The war did not last much longer.
Russians are said to have died in the defence of Sevastopol.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Sardinian Army in the Crimea
Commander Raby, Royal Navy, with
Curtis and John Taylor, winning the Victoria Cross
on 18th June 1855 by rescuing a private of
57th Foot, wounded in both legs and lying
between the trenches. Commander Raby
was the first recipient of the Victoria Cross
to receive his award from Queen Victoria herself.
British Regiments in the Crimean War: Number of Victoria
King’s Dragoon Guards: now the Queen’s Dragoon Guards.
4th Dragoon Guards: later the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards and now
the Royal Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards: later the 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards and
now the Royal Dragoon Guards.
6th Dragoon Guards: later the 6th Carabineers and now the Royal
Scots Dragoon Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons: later the Blues and Royals and now the Household
Royal Scots Greys: now the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. 2
4th Light Dragoons: later the 4th Hussars, then the Queen’s Royal
Irish Hussars and now the Queen’s Royal Hussars. 1
Inniskilling Dragoons: later the 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards and
now the Royal Dragoon Guards. 1
8th Hussars: later the Queen’s Royal Irish Hussars and now the
Queen’s Royal Hussars.
10th Hussars: later the Royal Hussars and now the King’s Royal
11th Hussars: later the Royal Hussars and now the King’s Royal
12th Lancers: now the 9th/12th Royal Lancers.
13th Light Dragoons: later the 13th/18th Royal Hussars and now the
17th Lancers: later the 17th/21st Lancers and now the Queen’s Royal
Royal Artillery: 9
Royal Engineers: 7
Grenadier Guards: 4
Coldstream Guards: 3
Scots Fusilier Guards: now the Scots Guards. 5
1st Royal Regiment: now the Royal Scots. 1
3rd Regiment, the Buffs: later the East Kent Regiment and now the
Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment. 2
4th King’s Own Royal Regiment: now the King’s Own Royal Border
7th Royal Fusiliers: now the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. 5
9th Regiment: later the Royal Norfolk Regiment and now the Royal
13th Light Infantry: later the Somerset Light Infantry and now the
The Crimean Medal with clasps
for each of the battles.
Thanks to Historik Orders
of Greenwich, Conn, USA.
14th Regiment: later the West Yorkshire Regiment and now the Prince
of Wales’s Own Regt of Yorkshire.
17th Regiment: later the Royal Leicestershire Regiment and now the
Royal Anglian Regiment. 1
18th Royal Irish Regiment: disbanded in 1922. 1
19th Regiment: now the Green Howards. 2
20th Regiment: later the Lancashire Fusiliers and now the Royal
Regiment of Fusiliers.
23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers: 4
28th Regiment: later the Gloucestershire Regiment and now the Royal
Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment.
30th Regiment: later the East Lancashire Regiment and now the
Queen’s Lancashire Regiment. 1
31st Regiment: The East Surrey Regiment and now the Princess of
Wales’s Royal Regiment.
33rd Regiment: now the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment.
34th Regiment: later the Border Regiment and now the King’s Own
Royal Border Regiment. 2
38th Regiment: later the South Staffordshire Regiment and now the
39th Regiment: later the Dorsetshire Regiment and now the Devon and
41st Regiment: later the Welsh Regiment now the Royal Regiment of
42nd Royal Highland Regiment, the Black Watch.
44th Regiment: later the Essex Regiment and now the Royal Anglian
46th Regiment: later the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry and now
the Light Infantry.
47th Regiment: later the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment and now the
Queen’s Lancashire Regiment. 1
48th Regiment: later the Northamptonshire Regiment and now the Royal
49th Regiment: later the Berkshire Regiment and now the Royal
Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment.3
50th Regiment: later the Royal West Kent Regiment and now the
Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment.
55th Regiment: later the Border Regiment and now the King’s Own
Royal Border Regiment. 2
56th Regiment: later the Essex Regiment and now the Royal Anglian
57th Regiment: later the Middlesex Regiment and now the Princess of
Wales’s Royal Regiment. 2
62nd Regiment: later the Wiltshire Regiment and now the Royal
Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment.
63rd Regiment: later the Manchester Regiment and now the King’s
68th Regiment: later the Durham Light Infantry and now the Light
71st Highland Light Infantry, now the Royal Highland Fusiliers.
72nd Highlanders: later the Seaforth Highlands, then the Queen’s Own
Highlanders and now the Highlanders.
77th Regiment: later the Middlesex Regiment and now the Princess of
Wales’s Royal Regiment. 2
79th Highlanders, the Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders: later the
Queen’s Own Highlanders and now the Highlanders.
82nd Regiment: later the South Lancashire Regiment and now the
Queen’s Lancashire Regiment.
88th Connaught Rangers: disbanded in 1922.
89th Regiment: later the Royal Irish Fusiliers; disbanded in 1922.
90th Regiment: later the Scottish Rifles; disbanded in 1966. 2
93rd Regiment: now the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 2
95th Regiment: later the Sherwood Foresters and now the
Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment.
97th Regiment: later the Royal West Kent Regiment and now the
Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment.
Rifle Brigade: now the Royal Green Jackets. 7