The Battle of Salamanca
Battle: Battle of Salamanca
War: Peninsular War
Date: 22nd July 1812
Place: Spain, east of Ciudad Rodrigo
Combatants: British and Portuguese against the French
Generals: Lieutenant General the Earl of Wellington against
Size of the armies: 50,000 British, Portuguese and Spanish
against 52,000 French.
Uniforms, arms and equipment: The British foot wore red, waist
length jackets, grey trousers and stovepipe shakos. The rifle
regiments wore green. The Portuguese infantry wore British style
uniforms but in blue. The CaÃ§adores wore green jackets.
Battle of Salamanca
The British dragoons wore red jackets with a Roman style helmet.
The light dragoons wore light blue jackets and a shako. The British
artillery wore blue.
The Spanish army essentially was without uniforms, existing as it did
in a country dominated by the French. Where formal uniforms could be
obtained they were in white.
The French infantry wore blue tunics and shakos.
The French foot artillery wore uniforms similar to the infantry, the
horse artillery, hussar uniform.
The standard infantry weapon for both armies was the musket, which
could be fired two or three times a minute and threw a heavy ball
inaccurately for a hundred metres. Each infantryman carried a bayonet
that fitted on the muzzle.
The British rifle battalions were armed with the Baker rifle, a more
accurate weapon but slower to fire, and a sword bayonet.
Map of the Battle of Salamanca
Field guns fired a ball projectile, by its nature of limited effect
against troops in the field, unless closely formed. Guns also fired
case shot or canister which fragmented, but was effective only at a
short range. Exploding shells fired by howitzers, as yet in their
infancy, were of particular use against buildings. The British had the
development of â€˜shrapnelâ€™ or fragmenting shell which was effective
Winner: The British, Spanish and Portuguese
Following the capture by the British and Portuguese of Badajoz and
Ciudad Rodrigo, Lord Wellington advanced into Spain. Marshal Marmont
commanded the army known as the â€œArmy of Portugal", which lay across
his path between Toros and Tordesillas, to the East of Salamanca. The
armies were of much the same size. Marmont was under pressure from
Joseph Napoleon, King of Spain and the Emperor Napoleonâ€™s brother, to
attack Wellingtonâ€™s army. His own troops agitated for an offensive
On 15th July 1812 Marmont began his offensive against Wellingtonâ€™s
right. Wellington was caught off guard and fell back on Salamanca. On
16th July 1812 a letter from Joseph to Marmont fell into Wellingtonâ€™s
hands. The letter stated that Joseph was marching to join Marmont with
13,000 men. Another French general, Cafferelli, with a force of
cavalry and guns was due to join Marmont in the next few days.
The two opposing armies marched on Salamanca, crossing the River
Tormes on 21st July. Wellington was resolved to avoid action other
than under the most advantageous of circumstances. Marmont was anxious
not to engage in full battle but felt constrained to fight some sort
On 22nd July Marmont thought he had the right opportunity. Dust
clouds beyond the hills to the South of Salamanca suggested that
Wellington was retreating. British troops could be seen in the hills
opposite the French positions, but Marmont assumed this was a
His ideal opportunity had arisen whereby he could engage a
small force and achieve success, thereby satisfying the demands of his
army and his commander, King Joseph.
Dragoons of the Kings German Legion Attack
Although Wellington had sent his heavy baggage on the road to
Ciudad Rodrigo, not a rear guard but his whole army still lay
concealed in the hills before the French.
French troops advanced and fighting took place around the chapel of
Nostra SeÃ±ora de la PeÃ±a.
Assuming that two divisions was all he faced, Marmont resolved to
engage these troops while his army marched off to the left and came in
behind the British, cutting them off from the rest of Wellingtonâ€™s
army which he took to be retreating in the distant dust cloud.
The 12th Light Dragoons of Salamanca
During the day Wellington moved his hidden divisions into positions
facing to the South. At about 2pm Wellington saw the nature of
Marmontâ€™s move around his flank. The French divisions were marching
along the British and Portuguese front, dangerously strung out and
exposing their flanks.
Wellington galloped to his extreme right, where Pakenhamâ€™s Third
Division was arriving from Salamanca with Dâ€™Urbanâ€™s Portuguese
Cavalry. He ordered an immediate attack on the head of the French
column. Wellington then crossed the hills to his centre and directed
the Fifth and Fourth Divisions to attack the French column, supported
by the Sixth and Seventh Divisions and two Portuguese infantry
Dâ€™Urbanâ€™s cavalry and the infantry of the Third Division began the
battle, charging ThomiÃ¨resâ€™ Division at the head of the French column.
After heavy fighting involving Lieutenant Colonel Wallaceâ€™s First
Brigade the French gave way.
Battle of Salamanca
Further to the left the British Fifth Division advanced down the
hillside towards Maucuneâ€™s Division, isolated by the extended French
column. Maucune formed his battalions in square under the threat of
the advancing British cavalry and were attacked by the infantry of the
Fifth Division. The British and Portuguese charged the squares and the
French were driven back.
The next phase of the battle was the attack by Le Marchantâ€™s
brigade of heavy cavalry between the Third and Fifth Divisions. The
cavalry struck Maucuneâ€™s retreating infantry and overran them. The
charge was continued until the cavalry encountered a steady French
brigade of infantry in squares and the dragoons were brought to a
halt, loosing casualties including General Le Marchant who was killed.
The French divisions of ThomiÃ¨res and Maucune had been forced out
of the battle and the division of Brennier had suffered heavy
casualties. At the beginning of the fighting Marshal Marmont was
wounded as was his deputy, General Bonnet. Taking command, General
Clausel launched a counter attack on the open flank of the Fourth
Division with considerable effect, until Beresford brought up a
Portuguese Brigade from the second line of the Fifth Division and
halted the French assault. The arrival of the Sixth Division,
advancing in support of the Fourth Division, drove back the French.
By this time night was well advanced and the French Army of
Portugal was streaming back to the Tormes River to escape the British
and Portuguese assault. The battle had ended with a complete victory
5th Dragoon Guards, in 1922 5th Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, now Royal
Dragoon Guards *
3rd Dragoons, later 3rd Kingâ€™s Own Hussars, then Queenâ€™s Own Hussars,
now Queenâ€™s Royal Hussars *
4th Dragoons, *
11th Light Dragoons, later 11th Hussars, then the Royal Hussars and
now the Kingâ€™s Royal Hussars *
12th Light Dragoons, now 9th/12th Royal Lancers
14th Light Dragoons, later 14th Hussars, then 14th/20th Kingâ€™s
Hussars, now Kingâ€™s Royal Hussars. *
16th Light Dragoons, later 16th Lancers, then 16th/5th Queenâ€™s Royal
Lancers now the Queenâ€™s Royal Lancers. *
Coldstream Foot Guards
3rd Foot Guards
1st Foot, the Royal Scots *
2nd Foot, the Queenâ€™s Regiment and now the Princess of Walesâ€™s Royal
4th Foot, the Kingâ€™s Own Royal Regiment and now the Kingâ€™s Own Royal
Border Regiment *
5th Foot, later the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and now the Royal
Regiment of Fusiliers*
7th Foot, the Royal Fusiliers and now the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
9th Foot , the Norfolk Regiment and now the Royal Anglian Regiment *
11th Foot, the Devonshire Regiment and now the Devon and Dorset
23rd Foot, the Royal Welch Fusiliers*
24th Foot, the South Wales Borderers and now the Royal Regiment of
27th Foot, Inniskilling Fusiliers and now the Royal Irish Regiment*
30th Foot, the East Lancashire Regiment and now the Queenâ€™s Lancashire
32nd Foot, the Duke of Cornwallâ€™s Light Infantry and now the Light
36th Foot, the Worcestershire Regiment and now the Worcestershire and
Sherwood Foresters Regiment *
38th Foot, the South Staffordshire Regiment and now the Staffordshire
40th Foot, the South Lancashire Regiment and now the Queenâ€™s
Lancashire Regiment *
42nd Foot (Highlanders), the Black Watch (the Royal Highland Regiment)
43rd Foot, the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and now
the Royal Green Jackets *
44th Foot, the Essex Regiment and now the Royal Anglian Regiment*
45th Foot, the Sherwood Foresters and now the Worcestershire and
Sherwood Foresters Regiment *
48th Foot, the Northamptonshire Regiment and now the Royal Anglian
51st Foot, the Kingâ€™s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry and now the Light
52nd Foot, the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and now
the Royal Green Jackets *
53rd Foot, the Kingâ€™s Shropshire Light Infantry and now the Light
58th Foot, the Northamptonshire Regiment and now the Royal Anglian
60th Foot, the Kingâ€™s Royal Rifle Corps and now the Royal Green
61st Foot, the Gloucestershire Regiment and now the Royal
Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment *
68th Foot, the Durham Light Infantry and now the Light Infantry *
74th Foot (Highlanders), the Highland Light Infantry and now the Royal
Highland Fusiliers *
79th Foot (Highlanders), the Queenâ€™s Own Cameron Highlanders, then the
Queenâ€™s Own Highlanders and now the Highlanders *
83rd Foot, the Royal Irish Rifles and now the Royal Irish Regiment *
88th Foot, the Connaught Rangers, disbanded in 1922 *
94th Foot, the Connaught Rangers, disbanded in 1922 *
95th Rifles, the Rifle Brigade and now the Royal Green Jackets *
* These regiments have Salamanca as a battle honour.
British order of battle:
Commander: Lieutenant General (local General) the Earl of
Cavalry: commanded by Lieutenant General Sir Stapleton Cotton
1st Brigade: commanded by Major General Gaspard Le Marchant: 5th
Dragoon Guards, 3rd and 4th Dragoons
2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General George Anson: 11th, 12th and
16th Light Dragoons
3rd Brigade: commanded by Major General Victor von Alten: 14th Light
Dragoons and 1st Hussars, Kingâ€™s German Legion
4th Brigade: commanded by Major General Baron Bock: 1st and 2nd
Dragoons, Kingâ€™s German Legion
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Dâ€™Urban: 1st, 11th
and 12th Portuguese Dragoons.
1st Division: commanded by Major General Henry Campbell
1st Brigade: commanded by Colonel Fermor: 1st/Coldstream, 1st/3rd
Guards, Co 5th/60th Foot
2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General Wheatley: 2nd/24th, 1st/42nd,
2nd/58th, 1st/79th Foot and Co 5th/60th Foot.
3rd Brigade: commanded by Major General Baron LÃ¶w: 1st, 2nd and 5th
Line Battalions, Kingâ€™s German Legion.
3rd Division: commanded by Colonel (local Major General) Packenham
1st Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Wallace:
1st/45th, 74th, 1st/88th and 3 Cos 5th/60th Foot.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel James Campbell: 1st/5th,
2nd/5th, 2nd/83rd and 94th Foot.
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Colonel Manley Power: 1st and
2nd/9th, 1st and 2nd/21st Portuguese Line and 12th CaÃ§adores.
4th Division: commanded by Major General (local Lieutenant General)
1st Brigade: commanded by Major General William Anson: 3rd/27th,
1st/40th, Co 5th/60th Foot.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ellis: 1st/7th, 1st/23rd,
1st/48th and Co Brunswick Oels.
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Colonel George Stubbs: 1st and
2nd/11th and 1st and 2nd/23rd Portuguese Line and 7th CaÃ§adores.
5th Division: commanded by Major General (local Lieutenant General)
1st Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Greville: 3rd/1st,
1st/9th, 1st and 2nd/38th Foot and Co Brunswick Oels.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General Pringle: 1st and 2nd/4th,
2nd/30th, 2nd/44th Foot and Co Brunswick Oels.
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Spry: 1st and
2nd/3rd, 1st and 2nd/15th Portuguese Line and 8th CaÃ§adores.
6th Division: commanded by Major General Clinton.
1st Brigade: commanded by Major General Hulse: 1st/11th, 2nd/53rd,
1st/61st and Co 5th60th Foot.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Colonel Hinde: 2nd, 1st/32nd and 1st/36th
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General de Rezende: 1st and
2nd/8th, 1st and 2nd/12th Portuguese Line and 9th CaÃ§adores.
7th Division: commanded by Major General Hope.
1st Brigade: commanded by Colonel Colin Halkett: 1st and 2nd Light
Battalions Kingâ€™s German Legion, 7 Cos Brunswick Oels.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General von Bernewitz: 51st, 68th Foot
and Chasseurs Britanniques.
Portuguese Brigade: commanded by Colonel Collins: 1st and 2nd/7th, 1st
and 2nd/19th Portuguese Line and 2nd CaÃ§adores.
Light Division: commanded by Lieutenant General Charles, Baron von
1st Brigade: commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Barnard: 1st/43rd Foot,
2nd/95th Rifles (4 Cos), 3rd/95th Rifles (5 Cos) and 3rd CaÃ§adores.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Major General Vandeleur: 1st/52nd Foot,
1st/95th Rifles (8 Cos and 1st CaÃ§adores.
1st Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Pack: 1st and 2nd/1st, 1st
and 2nd/16th Portuguese Line and 4th CaÃ§adores.
2nd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Bradford: 1st and
2nd/13th, 1st and 2nd/14th Portuguese Line and 5th CaÃ§adores.
Spanish Division: commanded by Major General De EspaÃ±a: 2nd/Princesa,
Tiradores de Castilla, 2nd/Jaen, 3rd/1st Seville and CaÃ§adores de
Artillery: Lieutenant Colonel Hoylet Framingham: 54 guns
Troops of Ross, Bull and Macdonald, Royal Horse Artillery.
Batteries of Lawson, Gardiner, Greene, Douglas, May and Arriaga
French order of battle:
Commander in Chief: Marshal Marmont, Duke of Ragusa
Light Cavalry Division: commanded by General Curto: 18 squadrons
Heavy Cavalry Division: commanded by General Boyer: 8 squadrons
1st Division: commanded by General Foy: 8 battalions
2nd Division: commanded by General Clausel: 10 battalions
3rd Division: commanded by General Ferey: 9 battalions
4th Division: commanded by General Sarrut: 9 battalions
5th Division: commanded by General Maucune: 9 battalions
6th Division: commanded by General Brennier: 8 battalions
7th Division: commanded by General ThomiÃ¨res: 8 battalions
8th Division: commanded by General Bonnet: 12 battalions
Artillery commanded by General Tirlet: 78 guns
Casualties: The British, Portuguese and Spanish lost 5,000
killed and wounded (half of this number being casualties in Sixth and
Fourth Divisions). The French lost 7,000 killed and wounded and 7,000
as prisoners. The French also lost 20 guns.
Follow-up: On 12th August the British, Portuguese and
Spanish army marched into Madrid. The effect of Salamanca was to
convince the British Government finally that the war in Spain should
be continued. Wellington obtained a moral ascendancy over his Fench
opponents that he did not lose. This aggressively conducted battle
dispelled Wellingtonâ€™s reputation for being a cautious general who
only fought defensive actions from positions of overwhelming strength.
Regimental anecdotes and traditions: As a reward for the
victory Lord Wellington was given a step up in the peerage. His
reaction was to say â€œWhat the devilâ€™s the use of making me a marquis?"